From beginner-friendly introductions to comprehensive textbooks on the philosophy of biology, this page features books to suit any learning style. It’s important to note that there is no single best book on the philosophy of biology. The best book for you will depend heavily on your preferred learning style and the amount of time/energy you’re willing to spend reading.
It’s also worth noting that it is not a list of personal recommendations. Personal book recommendations tend to be highly subjective, idiosyncratic, and unreliable. This list is part of a collection of over 100 philosophy reading lists which aim to provide a central resource for philosophy book recommendations. These lists were created by searching through hundreds of university course syllabi, internet encyclopedia bibliographies, and community recommendations. Links to the syllabi and other sources used to create this list are at the end of the post. Following these links will help you quickly find a broader range of options if the listed books do not fit what you are looking for.
Here are the best books on the philosophy of biology in no particular order.
Philosophy of Biology – Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher description: This is a concise, comprehensive, and accessible introduction to the philosophy of biology written by a leading authority on the subject. Geared to philosophers, biologists, and students of both, the book provides sophisticated and innovative coverage of the central topics and many of the latest developments in the field. Emphasizing connections between biological theories and other areas of philosophy, and carefully explaining both philosophical and biological terms, Peter Godfrey-Smith discusses the relation between philosophy and science; examines the role of laws, mechanistic explanation, and idealized models in biological theories; describes evolution by natural selection; and assesses attempts to extend Darwin’s mechanism to explain changes in ideas, culture, and other phenomena. Further topics include functions and teleology, individuality and organisms, species, the tree of life, and human nature. The book closes with detailed, cutting-edge treatments of the evolution of cooperation, of information in biology, and of the role of communication in living systems at all scales.
Authoritative and up-to-date, this is an essential guide for anyone interested in the important philosophical issues raised by the biological sciences.
Sex and Death : An Introduction to Philosophy of Biology – Kim Sterelny & Paul E. Griffiths
Publisher description: Is the history of life a series of accidents or a drama scripted by selfish genes? Is there an “essential” human nature, determined at birth or in a distant evolutionary past? What should we conserve—species, ecosystems, or something else?
Informed answers to questions like these, critical to our understanding of ourselves and the world around us, require both a knowledge of biology and a philosophical framework within which to make sense of its findings. In this accessible introduction to philosophy of biology, Kim Sterelny and Paul E. Griffiths present both the science and the philosophical context necessary for a critical understanding of the most exciting debates shaping biology today. The authors, both of whom have published extensively in this field, describe the range of competing views—including their own—on these fascinating topics.
With its clear explanations of both biological and philosophical concepts, Sex and Death will appeal not only to undergraduates, but also to the many general readers eager to think critically about the science of life.
Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology – David L. Hull & Michael Ruse
Publisher description: The philosophy of biology is one of the most exciting new areas in the field of philosophy and one that is attracting much attention from working scientists. This Companion, edited by two of the founders of the field, includes newly commissioned essays by senior scholars and up-and-coming younger scholars who collectively examine the main areas of the subject – the nature of evolutionary theory, classification, teleology and function, ecology, and the problematic relationship between biology and religion, among other topics. Up-to-date and comprehensive in its coverage, this unique volume will be of interest not only to professional philosophers but also to students in the humanities and researchers in the life sciences and related areas of inquiry.
Philosophy of Biology: An Anthology – Alex Rosenberg & Robert Arp
Publisher description: By combining excerpts from key historical writings with editors’ introductions and further reading material, Philosophy of Biology: An Anthology offers a comprehensive, accessible, and up-to-date collection of the field’s most significant works.
- Addresses central questions such as ‘What is life?’ and ‘How did it begin?’, and the most current research and arguments on evolution and developmental biology
- Editorial notes throughout the text define, clarify, and qualify ideas, concepts and arguments
- Includes material on evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental biology not found in other standard philosophy of biology anthologies
- Further reading material assists novices in delving deeper into research in philosophy of biology
The following sources were used to build this list:
University Course Syllabi:
- Philosophy of Biology – PHIL 415 | University of Alberta
- Philosophy of Biology – Allison McConwell
- Philosophy of Biology – VU Amsterdam
- Philosophy of Biology – PHIL 474 | Oregon State University
- Philosophy of Biology – Philosophy 3334 | Texas Tech University
- Philosophy of Biology – King’s College London
- Bibliography for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on the Philosophy of Biology
- Bibliography for the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on the Philosophy of Biology
- Philosophy of biology; best contemporary overview?
- General Audience Phil of Science (biology focus) books
You might also be interested in the following reading lists:
- The Best Introductory Philosophy Books
- The Best Books on Bioethics
- The Best Books on the Philosophy of Science
Or browse this collection of over 100 philosophy reading lists to find more philosophy book recommendations.
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A Collection of the Greatest Philosophical Quotations
A History of Western Philosophy in 500 Essential Quotations is a collection of the greatest thoughts from history’s greatest thinkers. Featuring classic quotations by Aristotle, Epicurus, David Hume, Friedrich Nietzsche, Bertrand Russell, Michel Foucault, and many more, A History of Western Philosophy in 500 Essential Quotations is ideal for anyone looking to quickly understand the fundamental ideas that have shaped the modern world.