This page aims to make learning about political philosophy as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes on political philosophy at the bottom of the page.
This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a huge number of philosophical topics, however, it is aimed at an academic audience and may be too detailed and technical for beginners. More beginner-friendly resources are listed below this section.
- Political Ideologies
- Political Concepts
- Autonomy in Moral and Political Philosophy
- Distributive Justice
- Global Justice
- Human Rights
- Political Legitimacy
- Positive and Negative Liberty
- Political Obligation
- Property and Ownership
- Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract
This section features short articles from the website 1000-Word Philosophy. These articles are ideal for anyone looking for a shorter or more beginner-friendly introduction to political philosophy than the encyclopedia articles listed above.
- Social Contract Theory by David Antonini
- John Rawls’ ‘A Theory of Justice’ by Ben Davies
- Theories of Punishment by Travis Joseph Rodgers
- Marx’s Conception of Alienation by Dan Lowe
- Just War Theory by Ryan Jenkins
- The Death Penalty by Benjamin S. Yost
- The Prisoner’s Dilemma by Jason Wyckoff
- Hannah Arendt’s Political Thought by David Antonini
- Plato’s Crito: When should we break the law? by Spencer Case
- Reparations for Historic Injustice by Joseph Frigault
- Feminism Part 1: The Sameness Approach by Annaleigh Curtis
- Feminism Part 2: The Difference Approach by Annaleigh Curtis
- Mary Astell’s “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies” (1694) by Simone Webb
This section features episodes from the podcasts Philosophy Bites. These are also aimed at a general audience and are a good option for beginners who prefer audio content.
- Melissa Lane on Plato and Totalitarianism
- Quentin Skinner on Machiavelli’s The Prince
- Michael Ignatieff on Political Theory and Political Practice
- Raimond Gaita on Torture
- Quentin Skinner on Hobbes on the State
- Noel Malcolm on Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan in Context
- Richard Bourke on Edmund Burke on Politics
- Alan Ryan on Freedom and Its History
- Philip Pettit on Republicanism
- Anne Phillips on Political Representation
- Angie Hobbs on Plato on War
- Jeff McMahan on Is There Such a Thing as a Just War?
- Cécile Fabre on Cosmopolitanism and War
- Jeff McMahan on Killing in War
- A.C. Grayling on Bombing Civilians in Wartime
- Seth Lazar on Sparing Civilians in War
- Chandran Kukathas on Genocide
- David Miller on National Responsibility
- Nicola Lacey on H.L.A. Hart and Legal Positivism
- Philip Schofield on Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarianism
- Martha Nussbaum on Disgust
- John Tasioulas on Human Rights
- Matthew Kramer on Legal Rights
- Tom Sorell on Surveillance
- Will Kymlicka on Minority Rights
- Tim Scanlon on Free Speech
- Jonathan Dimbleby on Free Speech and Censorship
- Alan Haworth on Free Speech and Multiculturalism
- Rae Langton on Hate Speech
- Richard Posner on Copyright
- John Gardner on Constitutions
- Nicola Lacey on Criminal Responsibility
- Catharine MacKinnon on Gender Crime
- Richard Norman on What’s Wrong With Killing?
- Victor Tadros on Punishment
- Gregg Caruso on Freewill and Punishment
- Richard Reeves on Mill’s On Liberty
- Jonathan Wolff on John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice
- Raymond Geuss on Real Politics
- Raymond Geuss on Realism and Utopianism in Political Philosophy
- Anthony Appiah on Cosmopolitanism
- David Miller on Immigration
- Anne Phillips on Multiculturalism
- John Dunn on Locke on Toleration
- Susan Mendus on Toleration
- Wendy Brown on Tolerance
- Anne Phillips on Multiculturalism and Liberalism
- Clare Chambers on Justifying Intervention
- John Horton on Political Obligation and Multiculturalism
- Nancy Fraser on Recognition and Multiculturalism
- David Miller on the Welfare State and Multiculturalism
- Henry Hardy on Isaiah Berlin’s Pluralism
- Ronald Dworkin on the Unity of Value
- Roberto Mangabeira Unger on Deep Freedom
- Nick Phillipson on Adam Smith on What Human Beings Are Like
- Melissa Lane on Rousseau on Civilization
- Jonathan Wolff on Marx on Alienation
- Peter Ghosh on Max Weber and ‘The Protestant Ethic’
- Chandran Kukathas on Hayek’s Liberalism
- John Tomasi on Free Market Fairness
- Jonathan Wolff on Disadvantage
- T.M. Scanlon on What’s Wrong with Inequality
- Danny Dorling on Inequality
- Kate Pickett on the Case for Equality
- Alex Voorhoeve on Inequality
- G.A. Cohen on Inequality of Wealth
- Hillel Steiner on Exploitation
- Michael Sandel on What Shouldn’t Be Sold
- John Broome on Weighing Lives
- David Stuckler on Austerity and Death
- Norman Daniels on the Philosophy of Healthcare
- Jonathan Wolff on Political Bioethics
- Thomas Pogge on Global Justice and Health
- Angus Deaton on Health and Inequality
- Leif Wenar on Trade and Tyranny
- James Garvey on Climate Change
- Robert B. Talisse on Overdoing Democracy
- Sarah Fine on the Right to Exclude
Short Videos (<30 mins)
This section features short videos created by Wireless Philosophy. These are also very beginner-friendly.
This section features online courses on political philosophy.
- The Moral Foundations of Politics – Ian Shapiro | Yale
- Modern Political Philosophy – John Rawls | Harvard
- Political Philosophy: Ideas of the 20th Century – Daniel Bonevac | University of Texas – Austin
This section features a selection of university course syllabi. Browsing course syllabi can be a useful way to find reading recommendations.
- Political Philosophy – Phil 122 | California State University, Sacramento
- Introduction to Political Theory: The Moral Basis of Politics – Poli 231 | McGill University
- Political Philosophy – Cambridge University
- Introduction to Political Philosophy – Duke University
- Introduction to Political Theory – POL 10a | Brandeis University
- An Introduction to Political Theory – POLS 110 | Amherst College
- Introduction to Political Philosophy – Phil 265 | University of Toronto
- Introduction to Political Philosophy – POSC 2401 | Fordham University
This section features requests for book recommendations on philosophy forums. These can also be useful to browse when trying to find reading recommendations.
- Intro to Political Philosophy?
- Best book for political philosophy?
- What must I read to become familiar in political philosophy?
- The best books on Political Philosophy recommended by Jonathan Wolff
There is only so much that you can learn using free online resources. This section features books that may be useful if you’re looking to learn more about political philosophy. This list was created using the books featured in the course syllabi and forum recommendations above.
- An Introduction to Political Philosophy – Jonathan Wolff
- Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction – Will Kimlicka
- Political Philosophy: The Essential Texts – Steven M. Cahn
- The Republic – Plato
- Politics – Aristotle
- The Prince – Niccolò Machiavelli
- Second Treatise of Government – John Locke
- Early Writings – Karl Marx
- On Liberty – John Stuart Mill
- A Theory of Justice – John Rawls
This section features a selection of key quotes on political philosophy.
The excessive increase of anything often causes a reaction in the opposite direction; and this is the case not only in the seasons and in vegetable and animal life, but above all in forms of government. … The excess of liberty, whether in States or individuals, seems only to pass into excess of slavery.
– Plato, The Republic, VIII, 563B
Until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy … cities will never have rest from their evils, — nor the human race, as I believe.
– Plato, The Republic, V, 473A
As a feast to which all the guests contribute is better than a banquet furnished by a single man, so a multitude is a better judge of many things than any individual. Again, the many are more incorruptible than the few. … The individual is liable to be overcome by anger or by some other passion, and then his judgment is necessarily perverted; but it is hardly to be supposed that a great number of persons would all get into a passion and go wrong at the same moment.
– Aristotle, Politics, 1286a28
A question arises: whether it be better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? It may be answered that one should wish to be both, but, because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to be feared than loved, when, of the two, either must be dispensed with. … Nevertheless a prince ought to inspire fear in such a way that, if he does not win love, he avoids hatred; because he can endure very well being feared whilst he is not hated, which will always be as long as he abstains from the property of his citizens and subjects and from their women.
– Machiavelli, The Prince, ch. 17
Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of war, where every man is enemy to every man, the same consequent to the time wherein men live without other security than what their own strength and their own invention shall furnish them withal. In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
– Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, pt. 1, ch. 13
The liberty of man, in society, is to be under no other legislative power, but that established, by consent, in the commonwealth; nor under the dominion of any will, or restraint of any law, but what that legislative shall enact, according to the trust put in it.
– John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, ch. 4, sect. 22
Constant experience shows us that every man invested with power is apt to abuse it, and to carry his authority as far as it will go. … To prevent this abuse, it is necessary from the very nature of things that power should be a check to power.
– Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, bk. 11, ch. 4
Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they.
– Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, bk. 1, ch. 2
All ran headlong to their chains, in hopes of securing their liberty; for they had just wit enough to perceive the advantages of political institutions, without experience enough to enable them to foresee the dangers. … Such was, or may well have been, the origin of society and law, which bound new fetters on the poor, and gave new powers to the rich; which irretrievably destroyed natural liberty, eternally fixed the law of property and inequality, converted clever usurpation into unalterable right, and, for the advantage of a few ambitious individuals, subjected all mankind to perpetual labour, slavery and wretchedness.
– Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, pt. 1
By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he [the owner of capital] intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain; and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. Nor is it always the worse for the society that it was no part of it. By pursuing his own interest, he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good.
– Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, bk. 4, ch. 2
A state without the means of some change is without the means of its conservation.
– Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France
I do not wish them [women] to have power over men; but over themselves.
– Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, ch. 4
I recognize, as the all-comprehensive, and only right and proper end of Government, the greatest happiness of the members of the community in question; the greatest happiness – of them all, without exception, in so far as possible: the greatest happiness of the greater number of them.
– Jeremy Bentham, Parliamentary Candidate’s Proposed Declaration of Principles
Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once? Men generally, under such a government as this, think that they ought to wait until they have persuaded the majority to alter them. They think that, if they should resist, the remedy would be worse than the evil. But it is the fault of the government itself that the remedy is worse than the evil.
– Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience
I am truly free only when all human beings, men and women, are equally free. The freedom of other men, far from negating or limiting my freedom, is, on the contrary, its necessary premise and confirmation.
– Mikhail Bakunin, Man, Society, and Freedom
The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant.
– John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, ch. 1
The peculiar evil of silencing the expression of opinion is, that it is robbing the human race; posterity as well as the existing generation; those who dissent from the opinion, still more than those who hold it. If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth: if wrong, they lose, what is almost as great a benefit, the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth, produced by its collision with error.
– John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, ch. 2
The principle which regulates the existing social relations between the two sexes — the legal subordination of one sex to the other — is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances to human improvement; and … it ought to be replaced by a principle of perfect equality, admitting no power or privilege on the one side, nor disability on the other.
– John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women, ch. 1
The world has never had a good definition of the word liberty, and the American people, just now, are much in want of one. We all declare for liberty; but in using the same word we do not all mean the same thing. With some the word liberty may mean for each man to do as he pleases with himself, and the product of his labor; while with others the same word may mean for some men to do as they please with other men, and the product of other men’s labor. Here are two, not only different, but incompatible things, called by the same name—liberty. And it follows that each of the things is, by the respective parties, called by two different and incompatible names—liberty and tyranny.
– Abraham Lincoln, Address at Sanitary Fair (Apr 18, 1864)
[The worker] does not fulfil himself in his work but denies himself, has a feeling of misery rather than well-being, does not develop freely his mental and physical energies but is physically exhausted and mentally debased. The worker, therefore, feels himself at home only during his leisure time, whereas at work he feels homeless. His work is not voluntary but imposed, forced labour. It is not the satisfaction of a need, but only a means for satisfying other needs.
– Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts 1844, Estranged Labour
Political power, properly so called, is merely the organised power of one class for oppressing another. If the proletariat during its contest with the bourgeoisie is compelled, by the force of circumstances, to organise itself as a class, if, by means of a revolution, it makes itself the ruling class, and, as such, sweeps away by force the old conditions of production, then it will, along with these conditions, have swept away the conditions for the existence of class antagonisms and of classes generally, and will thereby have abolished its own supremacy as a class. In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.
– Marx & Engels, The Communist Manifesto, II
The proletarian is helpless; left to himself, he cannot live a single day. The bourgeoisie has gained a monopoly of all means of existence in the broadest sense of the word. What the proletarian needs, he can obtain only from this bourgeoisie, which is protected in its monopoly by the power of the State. The proletarian is, therefore, in law and in fact, the slave of the bourgeoisie, which can decree his life or death. It offers him the means of living, but only for an “equivalent” for his work. It even lets him have the appearance of acting from a free choice, of making a contract with free, unconstrained consent, as a responsible agent who has attained his majority. Fine freedom, where the proletarian has no other choice than that of either accepting the conditions which the bourgeoisie offers him, or of starving, of freezing to death, of sleeping naked among the beasts of the forests! A fine “equivalent” valued at pleasure by the bourgeoisie! And if one proletarian is such a fool as to starve rather than agree to the equitable propositions of the bourgeoisie, his “natural superiors,” another is easily found in his place; there are proletarians enough in the world, and not all so insane as to prefer dying to living.
– Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, III
We flatter ourselves undeservedly if we represent human civilization as entirely the product of conscious reason or as the product of human design… Though our civilization is the result of a cumulation of individual knowledge, it is not by the explicit or conscious combination of all this knowledge in any individual brain… Many of the greatest things man has achieved are not the result of consciously directed thought, and still less the product of a deliberately co-ordinated effort of many individuals, but of a process in which the individual plays a part which he can never fully understand. They are greater than any individual precisely because they result from the combination of knowledge more extensive than a single mind can master.
– Friedrich Hayek, The Counter-Revolution of Science, ch. 8
Totalitarianism is never content to rule by external means, namely, through the state and a machinery of violence; thanks to its peculiar ideology and the role assigned to it in this apparatus of coercion, totalitarianism has discovered a means of dominating and terrorizing human beings from within.
– Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, pt. 3, ch. 1
Colonialism is not satisfied merely with holding a people in its grip and emptying the native’s brain of all form and content. By a kind of perverted logic, it turns to the past of the people, and distorts, disfigures and destroys it.
– Fantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth
By virtue of the way it has organized its technological base, contemporary industrial society tends to be totalitarian. For ‘totalitarian’ is not only a terroristic political coordination of society, but also a non-terroristic economic-technical coordination which operates through the manipulation of needs by vested interests. It thus precludes the emergence of an effective opposition against the whole. Not only a specific form of government or party rule makes for totalitarianism, but also a specific system of production and distribution which may well be compatible with a ‘pluralism’ of parties, newspapers, ‘countervailing powers,’ etc.
– Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man, ch. 1
Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust.
– John Rawls, A Theory of Justice
A minimal state, limited to the narrow functions of protection against force, theft, fraud, enforcement of contracts, and so on, is justified; that any more extensive state will violate persons’ rights not to be forced to do certain things, and is unjustified; and that the minimal state is inspiring as well as right.
– Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Preface
If power were never anything but repressive, if it never did anything but to say no, do you really think one would be brought to obey it? What makes power hold good, what makes it accepted, is simply the fact that it doesn’t only weigh on us as a force that says no, but that it traverses and produces things, it induces pleasure, forms knowledge, produces discourse. It needs to be considered as a productive network which runs through the whole social body, much more than as a negative instance whose function is repression.
– Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge
Without the presence of black people in America, European-Americans would not be “white”– they would be Irish, Italians, Poles, Welsh, and other engaged in class, ethnic, and gender struggles over resources and identity
– Cornel West, Race Matters
I am urging that we should learn about people in other places, take an interest in their civilizations, their arguments, their errors, their achievements, not because that will bring us to agreement, but because it will help us get used to one another.
– Kwame Anthony Appiah, Cosmopolitanism
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