This page aims to make learning about philosophy of science as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes on science at the bottom of the page.
This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a huge number of philosophical topics, however, it is aimed at an academic audience and may be too detailed and technical for beginners. The IEP is generally more beginner-friendly but is also considered to be less reliable. Wikipedia is also an option, but it is much less reliable than either of these.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- The Problem of Induction
- Laws of Nature
- Religion and Science
- Science and Pseudo-Science
- Scientific Explanation
- Scientific Method
- Scientific Objectivity
- Scientific Progress
- Scientific Realism
- Scientific Representation
- Scientific Revolutions
- The Structure of Scientific Theories
- Theory and Observation in Science
- The Unity of Science
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Confirmation and Induction
- Metaphysics of Science
- Representation, Scientific
- Science and Ideology
- Scientific Change
- Scientific Realism and Antirealism
- Simplicity in the Philosophy of Science
- Theories of Explanation
This section features short articles from 1000-Word Philosophy and Aeon. These articles are ideal for anyone looking for a shorter or more beginner-friendly introduction to philosophy of science than the encyclopedia articles listed above.
- Philosophy and Its Contrast with Science by Thomas Metcalf
- Karl Popper and Falsificationism by Michael Zerella
- The Problem of Induction by Kenneth Blake Vernon
- Laws of Nature by Michael Zerella
- Evolution and Ethics by Michael Klenk
- Interpretations of Probability by Thomas Metcalf
- Introduction to the Probability Calculus by Thomas Metcalf
- Thomas Kuhn, Paradigm Shifts, and Academic Rifts by Michael Zerella
- Quantum Mechanics and Philosophy I: The Superposition of Paths by Thomas Metcalf
- Quantum Mechanics and Philosophy II: Measurement and Interpretations by Thomas Metcalf
- Quantum Mechanics and Philosophy III: Implications by Thomas Metcalf
- The Sleeping Beauty Problem by Daniel Peterson
- Why philosophy is so important in science education
- Bring back science and philosophy as natural philosophy
- It’s time for a robust philosophical defence of truth in science
- The string theory wars show us how science needs philosophy
This section features episodes from the podcasts Philosophy Bites and In Our Time. These are also aimed at a general audience and are a good option for beginners who prefer audio content.
- David Papineau on Scientific Realism
- Massimo Pigliucci on the Demarcation Problem
- Carlo Rovelli on Philosophy and Physics
- Helen Beebee on Laws of Nature
- Hugh Mellor on Probability
In Our Time
Short Videos (<30 mins)
This section features short videos created by Wireless Philosophy. These are also very beginner-friendly.
- Science, Can it Teach Us Everything?
- Hume’s Skepticism and Induction, Part 1
- Hume’s Skepticism and Induction Part 2
This section features online courses on philosophy of science
- Introduction to Philosophy of Science – John Sanders | Rochester Institute of Technology
This section features a selection of university course syllabi. Browsing course syllabi can be a useful way to find reading recommendations.
- Philosophy of Science – James Pearson
- Philosophy of Science – Cambridge University
- History and Philosophy of Science – University of Utah
- Introduction to Philosophy of Science – Phil 258 | University of Waterloo
- Philosophy of Science – Phil 265 | University of Alberta
This section features requests for book recommendations on philosophy forums. These can also be useful to browse when trying to find reading recommendations.
- Philosophy of Science book recs
- Good places to start for philosophy of science?
- Where should i start with philosophy of science?
- Looking for a good introduction to philosophy of science
There is only so much that you can learn using free online resources. This section features books that may be useful if you’re looking to learn more about philosophy of science. This list was created using the books featured in the course syllabi and forum recommendations above.
- Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction – Samir Okasha
- Theory and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science – Peter Godfrey-Smith
- Philosophy of Science: Contemporary Readings – Yuri Balashov & Alex Rosenberg
- The Logic of Scientific Discovery – Karl Popper
- The Structure of Scientific Revolutions – Thomas S. Kuhn
This section features a selection of key quotes on science.
The first principles of the universe are atoms and empty space. Everything else is merely thought to exist. The worlds are unlimited. They come into being and perish. Nothing can come into being from that which is not nor pass away into that which is not. Further, the atoms are unlimited in size and number, and they are borne along in the whole universe in a vortex, and thereby generate all composite things— fire, water, air, earth. For even these are conglomerations of given atoms. And it is because of their solidarity that these atoms are impassive and unalterable. The sun and the moon have been composed of such smooth and spherical masses [i.e. atoms], and so also the soul, which is identical with reason.
– Democritus, as quoted in Diogenes Laertius, Democritus, IX, 44
By doubting we come to enquiry, and through enquiry we perceive truth.
– Peter Abelard, Sic et Non, Preface
Those who have handled sciences have been either men of experiment or men of dogmas. The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes a middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and of the field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the true business of philosophy; for it neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers of the mind, nor does it take the matter which it gathers from natural history and mechanical experiments and lay it up in the memory whole, as it finds it, but lays it up in the understanding altered and digested.
– Francis Bacon, Novum Organon, bk.1, sect. 95
[The book of the universe] is written in mathematical language and its characters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help … one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth.
– Galileo, The Assayer
It were far better never to think of investigating the truth at all, than to do so without a method. … Moreover by a method I mean certain and simple rules, such that, if a man observe them accurately, he shall never assume what is false as true, and will never spend his mental efforts to no purpose, but will always gradually increase his knowledge and so arrive at a true understanding of all that does not surpass his powers.
– René Descartes, Rules for the Direction of the Mind, IV
We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. … Nature is pleased with simplicity, and affects not the pomp of superfluous causes.
– Isaac Newton, The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, bk .3, sect. 1
We have no other notion of cause and effect, but that of certain objects, which have been always conjoined together, and which in all past instances have been found inseparable.
– David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, bk. 1, pt. 3, sect. 7
Thus the order and regularity in the appearances, which we entitle nature, we ourselves introduce.
– Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A 125
It is the nature of all positive philosophy to regard all phenomenon as subject to invariable natural laws, the discovery of which, and the reduction to the least possible number, is the aim and end of all our efforts, while causes, either first or final, are considered to be absolutely inaccessible, and the search for them meaningless.
– Auguste Comte, The Course in Positive Philosophy
It has often and confidently been asserted, that man’s origin can never be known: but ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science.
– Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, Intro.
The great tragedy of Science—the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact.
– T. H. Huxley, Biogenesis and Abiogenesis
Science is built up of facts, as a house is built of stones; but an accumulation of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house.
– Henri Poincaré, Science and Hypothesis, pt. 4, ch. 9
It is often said that experiments should be made without preconceived ideas. That is impossible.
– Henri Poincaré, Science and Hypothesis, pt. 4, ch. 9
A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.
– Max Planck, A Scientific Autobiography
The history of science, like the history of all human ideas, is a history of irresponsible dreams, of obstinacy, and of error. But science is one of the very few human activities – perhaps the only one – in which errors are systematically criticized and fairly often, in time corrected. This is why we can say that, in science, we often learn from our mistakes, and why we can speak clearly and sensibly about making progress there.
– Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations
It is easy to obtain confirmations, or verifications, for nearly every theory— if we look for confirmations. Confirmations should count only if they are the result of risky predictions … A theory which is not refutable by any conceivable event is non-scientific. Irrefutability is not a virtue of a theory (as people often think) but a vice. Every genuine test of a theory is an attempt to falsify it, or refute it.
– Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations
We can never make absolutely certain that our theory is not lost. All we can do is search for the falsity content of our best theory. We do so by trying to refute our theory; that is, by trying to test it severely in the light of all our objective knowledge and all our ingenuity. It is, of course, always possible that our theory may be false even if it passes all these tests; this is allowed for by our search for verisimilitude. But if it passes all these tests then we may have good reason to conjecture that our theory, which as we know has a greater truth content than its predecessor, may have no greater falsity content. And if we fail to refute the new theory, especially in fields in which its predecessor has been refuted, then we can claim this as one of the objective reasons for the conjecture that the new theory is a better approximation of truth than the old theory.
– Karl Popper, Objective Knowledge
In so far as a scientific statement speaks about reality, it must be falsifiable: and in so far as it is not falsifiable, it does not speak about reality.
– Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery
Nobody knows more than a tiny fragment of science well enough to judge its validity and value at first hand. For the rest he has to rely on views accepted at second hand on the authority of a community of people accredited as scientists. But this accrediting depends in its turn on a complex organization. For each member of the community can judge at first hand only a small number of his fellow members, and yet eventually each is accredited by all. What happens is that each recognizes as scientists a number of others by whom he is recognized as such in return, and these relations form chains which transmit these mutual recognitions at second hand through the whole community. This is how each member becomes directly or indirectly accredited by all. The system extends into the past. Its members recognize the same set of persons as their masters and derive from this allegiance a common tradition, of which each carries on a particular strand.
– Michael Polyani, Personal Knowledge
The amount of knowledge which we can justify from evidence directly available to us can never be large. The overwhelming proportion of our factual beliefs continue therefore to be held at second hand through trusting others, and in the great majority of cases our trust is placed in the authority of comparatively few people of widely acknowledged standing.
– Michael Polyani, Personal Knowledge
As in political revolutions, so in paradigm choice [scientific revolutions]—there is no standard higher than the assent of the relevant community … this issue of paradigm choice can never be unequivocally settled by logic and experiment alone.
– Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Scientific development depends in part on a process of non-incremental or revolutionary change. Some revolutions are large, like those associated with the names of Copernicus, Newton, or Darwin, but most are much smaller, like the discovery of oxygen or the planet Uranus. The usual prelude to changes of this sort is, I believed, the awareness of anomaly, of an occurrence or set of occurrences that does not fit existing ways of ordering phenomena. The changes that result therefore require ‘putting on a different kind of thinking- cap’, one that renders the anomalous lawlike but that, in the process, also transforms the order exhibited by some other phenomena, previously unproblematic.
– Thomas Kuhn, The Essential Tension
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