This page aims to make learning about the philosophy of Machiavelli as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes by Machiavelli at the bottom of the page.
This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a huge number of philosophical topics, however, it is aimed at an academic audience and may be too detailed and technical for beginners. The IEP is generally more beginner-friendly but is also considered to be less reliable. Wikipedia is also an option, but it is much less reliable than either of these.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
This section features short articles written by professional philosophers and aimed at a general audience. These articles are ideal for anyone looking for a shorter or more beginner-friendly introduction to Machiavelli than the encyclopedia articles listed above.
The Times Literary Supplement
The New York Times (The Stone)
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part 1: the challenge of power
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part two: humanism and the lessons of history
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part three: the personal in the political
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part four: benevolence to complement brutality
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part five: reversing the virtues
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part 6: was Machiavelli an atheist?
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part 7: the two sides of human nature
- Machiavelli’s The Prince, part 8: a lingering love of justice
This section features episodes from leading philosophy podcasts. These are also aimed at a general audience and are a good option for beginners who prefer audio content.
In Our Time
The Partially Examined Life
New Books in Philosophy
Short Videos (<30 mins)
This section features short videos aimed at beginners.
Lectures/Longer Videos (>30 mins)
This section features longer videos and lectures. These tend to be less beginner-friendly and aimed at a more academic audience.
This section features a selection of university course syllabi. Browsing course syllabi can be a useful way to find reading recommendations.
- Machiavelli and Interpretation – POLI 561 | McGill University
- The Political Thought of Machiavelli – Political Science 145 | Tufts University
- Major Political Thinkers: Machiavelli – California State University
This section features requests for book recommendations on philosophy forums. These can also be useful to browse when trying to find reading recommendations.
There is only so much that you can learn using free online resources. This section features books that may be useful if you’re looking to learn more about Machiavelli. This list was created using the books featured in the course syllabi and forum recommendations above.
- The Prince – Niccolò Machiavelli
- Discourses – Niccolò Machiavelli
- Discourses on Livy – Niccolò Machiavelli
- Machiavelli: A Very Short Introduction – Quentin Skinner
- Niccolò Machiavelli: An Intellectual Biography – Corrado Vivanti
- The Cambridge Companion to Machiavelli – John M. Najemy
- The Portable Machiavelli – Niccolò Machiavelli
This section features a selection of key quotes by Machiavelli.
The wish to acquire is in truth very natural and common, and men always do so when they can, and for this they will be praised not blamed; but when they cannot do so, yet wish to do so by any means, then there is folly and blame.
– The Prince, ch. 3
Men change their rulers willingly, hoping to better themselves, and this hope induces them to take up arms against him who rules: wherein they are deceived, because they afterwards find by experience they have gone from bad to worse.
– The Prince, ch. 3
A man who wishes to act entirely up to his professions of virtue soon meets with what destroys him among so much that is evil. Hence it is necessary for a prince wishing to hold his own to know how to do wrong, and to make use of it or not according to necessity. . . . He need not make himself uneasy at incurring a reproach for those vices without which the state can only be saved with difficulty, for if everything is considered carefully, it will be found that something which looks like virtue, if followed, would be his ruin; whilst something else, which looks like vice, yet followed brings him security and prosperity.
– The Prince, ch. 15
All those who have written upon civil institutions demonstrate (and history is full of examples to support them) that whoever desires to found a state and give it laws, must start with assuming that all men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature, whenever they may find occasion for it. If their evil disposition remains concealed for a time, it must be attributed to some unknown reason; and we must assume that it lacked occasion to show itself; but time, which has been said to be the father of all truth, does not fail to bring it to light.
– Discourses on Livy, bk. 1, ch. 3
He will be successful who directs his actions according to the spirit of the times, and that he whose actions do not accord with the times will not be successful. Because men are seen, in affairs that lead to the end which every man has before him, namely, glory and riches, to get there by various methods; one with caution, another with haste; one by force, another by skill; one by patience, another by its opposite; and each one succeeds in reaching the goal by a different method. One can also see of two cautious men the one attains his end, the other fail; and similarly, two men by different observances are equally successful, the one being cautious, the other impetuous; all this arises from nothing else than whether or not they conform in their methods to the spirit of the times.
– The Prince, ch. 25
A question arises: whether it be better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? It may be answered that one should wish to be both, but, because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to be feared than loved, when, of the two, either must be dispensed with. … Nevertheless a prince ought to inspire fear in such a way that, if he does not win love, he avoids hatred; because he can endure very well being feared whilst he is not hated, which will always be as long as he abstains from the property of his citizens and subjects and from their women.
– The Prince, ch. 17
Therefore it is unnecessary for a prince to have all the good qualities I have enumerated, but it is very necessary to appear to have them. And I shall dare to say this also, that to have them and always to observe them is injurious, and that to appear to have them is useful; to appear merciful, faithful, humane, religious, upright, and to be so, but with a mind so framed that should you require not to be so, you may be able and know how to change to the opposite. And you have to understand this, that a prince, especially a new one, cannot observe all those things for which men are esteemed, being often forced, in order to maintain the state, to act contrary to fidelity, friendship, humanity, and religion.
– The Prince, ch. 18
Nations, as a rule, when making a change in their system of government pass from order to disorder, and afterwards from disorder to order, because nature permits no stability in human affairs. When nations reach their final perfection and can mount no higher they commence to descend; and equally when they have descended and reached a depth where they can fall no lower, necessity compels them to rise again. Thus states will always be falling from prosperity to adversity, and from adversity they will ascend again to prosperity. Because valour brings peace, peace idleness, idleness disorder, and disorder ruin; once more from ruin arises good order, from order valour, and from valour success and glory.
– Florentine History, bk. 5, ch. 1
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