This page aims to make learning about the philosophy of Descartes as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes by Descartes at the bottom of the page.
This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a huge number of philosophical topics, however, it is aimed at an academic audience and may be too detailed and technical for beginners. The IEP is generally more beginner-friendly but is also considered to be less reliable. Wikipedia is also an option, but it is much less reliable than either of these.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- René Descartes
- Descartes’ Life and Works
- Descartes’ Epistemology
- Descartes’ Ontological Argument
- Descartes’ Ethics
- Descartes’ Theory of Ideas
- Descartes’ Modal Metaphysics
- Descartes’ Physics
- Descartes and the Pineal Gland
- Descartes’ Mathematics
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
This section features short articles written by professional philosophers and aimed at a general audience. These articles are ideal for anyone looking for a shorter or more beginner-friendly introduction to Descartes than the encyclopedia articles listed above.
- How the dualism of Descartes ruined our mental health
- Descartes was wrong: ‘a person is a person through other persons’
The Times Literary Supplement
The New York Times (The Stone)
This section features episodes from leading philosophy podcasts. These are also aimed at a general audience and are a good option for beginners who prefer audio content.
In Our Time
The Philosopher’s Zone
The Partially Examined Life
Short Videos (<30 mins)
This section features short videos aimed at beginners.
BBC Radio 4
Lectures/Longer Videos (>30 mins)
This section features longer videos and lectures. These tend to be less beginner-friendly and aimed at a more academic audience.
This section features a selection of university course syllabi. Browsing course syllabi can be a useful way to find reading recommendations.
- Seminar on Descartes – Phil 682 | Texas A&M University
- Descartes and Rationalism – PHIL 354 | Simon Fraser University
This section features requests for book recommendations on philosophy forums. These can also be useful to browse when trying to find reading recommendations.
- In what order should I read the works of Descartes?
- Good Descartes Reads
- What’s the best starting point for Descartes? Discourse or Meditations?
There is only so much that you can learn using free online resources. This section features books that may be useful if you’re looking to learn more about Descartes. This list was created using the books featured in the course syllabi and forum recommendations above.
- Discourse on Method – René Descartes
- Meditations on First Philosophy – René Descartes
- Selected Philosophical Writings – René Descartes
- Descartes: A Very Short Introduction – Tom Sorell
- Descartes: An Intellectual Biography – Stephen Gaukroger
- The Cambridge Companion to Descartes – John Cottingham
This section features online courses on Descartes.
- The Philosophy of Descartes – La Trobe University
This section features a selection of key quotes by Descartes.
It were far better never to think of investigating the truth at all, than to do so without a method. … Moreover by a method I mean certain and simple rules, such that, if a man observe them accurately, he shall never assume what is false as true, and will never spend his mental efforts to no purpose, but will always gradually increase his knowledge and so arrive at a true understanding of all that does not surpass his powers.
– Rules for the Direction of the Mind, IV
The first [rule] was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgement than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt. The second, to divide each of the difficulties under examination into as many parts as possible, and as might be necessary for its adequate solution. The third, to conduct my thoughts in such order that, by commencing with objects the simplest and easiest to know, I might ascend by little and little, and, as it were, step by step, to the knowledge of the more complex; assigning in thought a certain order even to those objects which in their own nature do not stand in a relation of antecedence and sequence. And the last, in every case to make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general, that I might be assured that nothing was omitted.
– Discourse on the Method, II
Seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; and because some men err in reasoning, and fall into paralogisms, even on the simplest matters of geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for demonstrations; and finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts (presentations) which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects (presentations) that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams. But immediately upon this I observed that, whilst I thus wished to think that all was false, it was absolutely necessary that I, who thus thought, should be somewhat; and as I observed that this truth, I think, therefore I am (COGITO ERGO SUM), was so certain and of such evidence that no ground of doubt, however extravagant, could be alleged by the sceptics capable of shaking it, I concluded that I might, without scruple, accept it as the first principle of the philosophy of which I was in search.
– Discourse on the Method, pt. 4
I suppose, then, that all the things that I see are false; I persuade myself that nothing has ever existed of all that my fallacious memory represents to me. I consider that I possess no senses; I imagine that body, figure, extension, movement and place are but the fictions of my mind. What, then, can be esteemed as true? Perhaps nothing at all, unless that there is nothing in the world that is certain.
– Meditations on First Philosophy, 2nd Meditation
But [if] there is some deceiver or other, very powerful and very cunning, who ever employs his ingenuity in deceiving me. Then without doubt I exist also if he deceives me, and let him deceive me as much as he will, he can never cause me to be nothing so long as I think that I am something. So that after having reflected well and carefully examined all things, we must come to the definite conclusion that this proposition: I am, I exist, is necessarily true each time that I pronounce it, or that I mentally conceive it.
– Meditations on First Philosophy, 2nd Meditation
There is a great difference between mind and body, inasmuch as body is by nature always divisible, and the mind is entirely indivisible. For, as a matter of fact, when I consider the mind, that is to say, myself inasmuch as I am only a thinking thing, I cannot distinguish in myself any parts, but apprehend myself to be clearly one and entire; and although the whole mind seems to be united to the whole body, yet if a foot, or an arm, or some other part, is separated from my body, I am aware that nothing has been taken away from my mind. … But it is quite otherwise with corporeal or extended objects, for there is not one of these imaginable by me which my mind cannot easily divide into parts, and which consequently I do not recognize as being divisible.
– Meditations on First Philosophy, 4th Meditation
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