Kropotkin

“Mutual aid is as much a law of animal life as mutual struggle” – a reading from Peter Kropotkin’s Mutual Aid

Lennox Johnson reading

Peter Kropotkin was a Russian naturalist and anarchist born into an aristocratic Russian family in 1842. In this passage from his classic work Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, Kropotkin argues against a narrow reading of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution promoted by Social Darwinists such as T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer. Huxley and Spencer saw the process of evolution as a cutthroat struggle of every individual against all others in which only the strongest survive. They argued that this principle of mutual struggle applies not just to animals …

Philosophy of Science: A Collection of Online Resources and Key Quotes

Lennox Johnson Resources

This page aims to make learning about philosophy of science as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes on science at the bottom of the page. Encyclopedia Articles This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a …

Political Philosophy: A Collection of Online Resources and Key Quotes

Lennox Johnson Resources

This page aims to make learning about political philosophy as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes on political philosophy at the bottom of the page. Encyclopedia Articles This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a huge number of philosophical topics, however, …

Epistemology: A Collection of Online Resources and Key Quotes

Lennox Johnson Resources

This page aims to make learning about epistemology (the study of knowledge) as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes on knowledge at the bottom of the page. Encyclopedia Articles This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles …

Ethics: A Collection of Online Resources and Key Quotes

Lennox Johnson Resources

This page aims to make learning about ethics as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes on ethics at the bottom of the page. Encyclopedia Articles This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a huge number …