This page contains a list of the five best books on Metaethics. Finding good introductory philosophy books can be difficult for two reasons. First, searching google for recommendations usually doesn’t bring up anything useful. Second, phrases like “best books on Metaethics” are ambiguous. One person may be looking for a short, beginner friendly introduction, someone else may want a comprehensive academic overview, a third person may be looking for classic works on Metaethics. This list tries to account for this ambiguity by recommending different types of books on Metaethics. This list was created by compiling recommendations from across the internet and is not a list of personal recommendations. More information about this process is at the end of the post. Here are the best books on Metaethics in no particular order:
What is this thing called Metaethics? – Matthew Chrisman
Publisher description: Are moral standards relative to cultures? Are there any moral facts? What is goodness? If there are moral facts how do we learn about them? These are all questions in metaethics, the branch of ethics that investigates the status of morality, the nature of ethical facts, and the meaning of ethical statements. To the uninitiated it can appear abstract and far removed from its two more concrete cousins, ethical theory and applied ethics, yet it is one of the fastest-growing and most exciting areas of ethics. What is this thing called Metaethics? demystifies this important subject and is ideal for students coming to it for the first time. Beginning with a brief historical overview of metaethics and the development of a “conceptual toolkit,” Matthew Chrisman introduces and assesses the following key topics:
- ethical reality: including questions about naturalism and non-naturalism, moral facts, and the distinction between realism and antirealism
- ethical language: does language represent reality? What mental states are expressed by moral statements?
- ethical psychology: the Humean theory of motivation and the connection between moral judgement and motivation
- ethical knowledge: intuitionist and coherentist moral epistemologies, and theories of objectivity and relativism in metaethics
- new directions in metaethics, including non-traditional theories and extensions to metaepistemology and metanormative theory.
Additional features such as chapter summaries, questions of understanding, and a glossary make this an ideal introduction to metaethics.
Metaethics: A Contemporary Introduction – Mark van Roojen
Publisher description: Metaethics: A Contemporary Introduction provides a solid foundation in metaethics for advanced undergraduates by introducing a series of puzzles that most metaethical theories address. These puzzles involve moral disagreement, reference, moral epistemology, metaphysics, and moral psychology. From there, author Mark van Roojen discusses the many positions in metaethics that people will take in reaction to these puzzles. Van Roojen asks several essential questions of his readers, namely: What is metaethics? Why study it? How does one discuss metaethics, given its inherently controversial nature? Each chapter closes with questions, both for reading comprehension and further discussion, and annotated suggestions for further reading.
The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics – Tristram McPherson & David Plunkett
Publisher description: This Handbook surveys the contemporary state of the burgeoning field of metaethics. Forty-four chapters, all written exclusively for this volume, provide expert introductions to:
- the central research programs that frame metaethical discussions
- the central explanatory challenges, resources, and strategies that inform contemporary work in those research programs
- debates over the status of metaethics, and the appropriate methods to use in metaethical inquiry
This is essential reading for anyone with a serious interest in metaethics, from those coming to it for the first time to those actively pursuing research in the field.
Foundations of Ethics: An Anthology – Russ Shafer-Landau & Terence Cuneo
Publisher description: A substantial collection of seminal articles, Foundations of Ethics covers all of the major issues in metaethics.
- Covers all of the major issues in metaethics including moral metaphysics, epistemology, moral psychology, and philosophy of language.
- Provides an unparalleled offering of primary sources and expert commentary for students of ethical theory.
- Includes seminal essays by ethicists such as G.E. Moore, Simon Blackburn, Gilbert Harman, Christine Korsgaard, Michael Smith, Bernard Williams, Jonathan Dancy, and many other leading figures of ethical theory.
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals – Immanuel Kant
Publisher description: Published in 1785, Immanuel Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals ranks alongside Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics as one of the most profound and influential works in moral philosophy ever written. In Kant’s own words, its aim is to identify and corroborate the supreme principle of morality, the categorical imperative. He argues that human beings are ends in themselves, never to be used by anyone merely as a means, and that universal and unconditional obligations must be understood as an expression of the human capacity for autonomy and self-governance. As such, they are laws of freedom. This volume contains Mary Gregor’s acclaimed translation of the work, sympathetically revised by Jens Timmermann, and an accessible, updated introduction by Christine Korsgaard.
This list was created by following a method that I’ve found to be useful when searching for introductory philosophy books. It involves:
- browsing required reading lists on university course syllabi
- searching for books using the Open Syllabus Project
- browsing the bibliographies of articles on the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- searching for recommendations on philosophy forums
The following sources were used to build this list:
University Course Syllabi:
- Bibliography for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on Metaethics
- Bibliography for the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on Metaethics
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