This page aims to make learning about Aristotle as easy as possible by bringing together the best articles, podcasts, and videos from across the internet onto one page. To get started, simply choose one of the resources listed below, or browse a selection of key quotes by Aristotle at the bottom of the page.
This section features articles from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The SEP is probably the most comprehensive online philosophy resource. It features in-depth articles on a huge number of philosophical topics, however, it is aimed at an academic audience and may be too detailed and technical for beginners. The IEP is generally more beginner-friendly but is also considered to be less reliable. Wikipedia is also an option, but it is much less reliable than either of these.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Aristotle’s Ethics
- Aristotle’s Political Theory
- Aristotle’s Metaphysics
- Aristotle’s Psychology
- Aristotle’s Logic
- Aristotle’s Rhetoric
- Aristotle’s Categories
- Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy
- Aristotle and Mathematics
- Aristotle on Non-contradiction
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Aristotle: Politics
- Aristotle: Ethics
- Aristotle: Biology
- Aristotle: Metaphysics
- Aristotle: Logic
- Aristotle: Poetics
- Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature
This section features short articles written by professional philosophers and aimed at a general audience. These articles are ideal for anyone looking for a shorter or more beginner-friendly introduction to Aristotle than the encyclopedia articles listed above.
- What can Aristotle teach us about the routes to happiness?
- How Aristotle’s example can help public philosophy today
- Aristotle was right about mathematics after all
- What Aristotle can teach us about Trump’s rhetoric
- Should you send a text or email? Here’s some advice from Aristotle
- Happy days: virtue isn’t just for sanctimonious do-gooders
The New York Times (The Stone)
This section features episodes from leading philosophy podcasts. These are also aimed at a general audience and are a good option for beginners who prefer audio content.
The History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps
- Mr. Know It All: Aristotle’s Life And Works
- The Philosopher’s Toolkit: Aristotle’s Logical Works
- A Principled Stand: Aristotle’s Epistemology
- Hugh Benson on Aristotelian Method
- Down to Earth: Aristotle on Substance
- Form and Function: Aristotle’s Four Causes
- Let’s Get Physical: Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy
- Richard Sorabji on Time and Eternity in Aristotle
- Soul Power: Aristotle’s De Anima
- Classified Information: Aristotle’s Biology
- The Goldilocks Theory: Aristotle’s Ethics
- The Second Self: Aristotle On Pleasure And Friendship
- Dominic Scott on Aristotle’s Ethics
- God Only Knows: Aristotle on Mind and God
- Constitutional Conventions: Aristotle’s Political Philosophy
- Stage Directions: Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Poetics
- MM McCabe and Raphael Woolf on Aristotle on Plato
- The Next Generation: the Followers of Plato and Aristotle
In Our Time
The Philosopher’s Zone
- Christopher Frey discusses Aristotle on living organisms and their parts
- Greg Salmieri discusses the Aristotelian good life and productive work
The Partially Examined Life
- Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics
- Aristotle on Friendship and Happiness
- Aristotle on Wisdom and Incontinence
- Aristotle’s “De Anima”: What Is the Mind?
- Aristotle’s “De Anima”: What Is Life?
Short Videos (<30 mins)
This section features short videos aimed at beginners.
Dr. Gregory Sadler
- Ancient Philosophy: Aristotle (Playlist)
BBC Radio 4
Academy of Ideas
Lectures/Longer Videos (>30 mins)
This section features longer videos and lectures. These tend to be less beginner-friendly and aimed at a more academic audience.
This section features a selection of university course syllabi. Browsing course syllabi can be a useful way to find reading recommendations.
- Aristotle – Phil 6020 | Georgia State University
- Aristotle – Phil 421 | University of Oregon
- Aristotle – Phil 355 | McGill University
This section features requests for book recommendations on philosophy forums. These can also be useful to browse when trying to find reading recommendations.
- What work is a good place to start when studying Aristotle?
- Is this book a good introduction to Aristotle?
- What are good companion texts to Plato and Aristotle?
- What is the best way to get into Aristotle?
There is only so much that you can learn using free online resources. This section features books that may be useful if you’re looking to learn more about Aristotle. This list was created using the books featured in the course syllabi and forum recommendations above.
- Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction by Jonathan Barnes
- Aristotle: The Desire to Understand by Jonathan Lear
- A New Aristotle Reader edited by J. L. Ackrill
- The Complete Works of Aristotle edited by Jonathan Barnes
- The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle edited by Jonathan Barnes
- Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle
- Politics by Aristotle
- Rhetoric and Poetics by Aristotle
- Physics by Aristotle
- Metaphysics by Aristotle
This section features a selection of key quotes by Aristotle.
All men by nature desire to know.
– Metaphysics, 980a1
The investigation of the truth is in one way hard, in another easy. An indication of this is found in the fact that no one is able to attain the truth adequately, while, on the other hand, we do not collectively fail, but every one says something true about the nature of things, and while individually we contribute little or nothing to the truth, by the union of all a considerable amount is amassed. Therefore, since the truth seems to be like the proverbial door, which no one can fail to hit, in this respect it must be easy, but the fact that we can have a whole truth and not the particular part we aim at shows the difficulty of it. Perhaps, too, as difficulties are of two kinds, the cause of the present difficulty is not in the facts but in us. For as the eyes of bats are to the blaze of day, so is the reason in our soul to the things which are by nature most evident of all.
– Metaphysics, 993a30
As a feast to which all the guests contribute is better than a banquet furnished by a single man, so a multitude is a better judge of many things than any individual. Again, the many are more incorruptible than the few. … The individual is liable to be overcome by anger or by some other passion, and then his judgment is necessarily perverted; but it is hardly to be supposed that a great number of persons would all get into a passion and go wrong at the same moment.
– Politics, 1286a28
It would perhaps be thought to be better, indeed to be our duty, for the sake of maintaining the truth even to destroy what touches us closely, especially as we are philosophers or lovers of wisdom; for, while both are dear, piety requires us to honour truth above our friends.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1096a13
To say that happiness is the chief good seems a platitude, and a clearer account of what it is is still desired. This might perhaps be given, if we could first ascertain the function of man. For just as for a flute-player, a sculptor, or any artist, and, in general, for all things that have a function or activity, the good and the ‘well’ is thought to reside in the function, so would it seem to be for man, if he has a function. Have the carpenter, then, and the tanner certain functions or activities, and has man none? Is he naturally functionless? Or as eye, hand, foot, and in general each of the parts evidently has a function, may one lay it down that man similarly has a function apart from all these? What then can this be?
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1097b
Human good turns out to be activity of soul in accordance with virtue, and if there are more than one virtue, in accordance with the best and most complete. But we must add ‘in a complete life.’ For one swallow does not make a summer, nor does one day; and so too one day, or a short time, does not make a man blessed and happy.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1097b22
None of the moral virtues arises in us by nature; for nothing that exists by nature can form a habit contrary to its nature. For instance the stone which by nature moves downwards cannot be habituated to move upwards, not even if one tries to train it by throwing it up ten thousand times; nor can fire be habituated to move downwards, nor can anything else that by nature behaves in one way be trained to behave in another. Neither by nature, then, nor contrary to nature do the virtues arise in us; rather we are adapted by nature to receive them, and are made perfect by habit.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1103a14
Virtue … is a mean between two vices, that which depends on excess and that which depends on defect; and again it is a mean because the vices respectively fall short of or exceed what is right in both passions and actions, while virtue both finds and chooses that which is intermediate.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1106b36
It is no easy task to be good. For in everything it is no easy task to find the middle, e.g. to find the middle of a circle is not for every one but for him who knows; so, too, any one can get angry — that is easy — or give or spend money; but to do this to the right person, to the right extent, at the right time, with the right motive, and in the right way, that is not for every one, nor is it easy; wherefore goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1109a24
Anger seems to listen to argument to some extent, but to mishear it, as do hasty servants who run out before they have heard the whole of what one says, and then muddle the order, or as dogs bark if there is but a knock at the door, before looking to see if it is a friend; so anger by reason of the warmth and hastiness of its nature, though it hears, does not hear an order, and springs to take revenge. For argument or imagination informs us that we have been insulted or slighted, and anger, reasoning as it were that anything like this must be fought against, boils up straightway.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1149a25
Without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods; even rich men and those in possession of office and of dominating power are thought to need friends most of all; for what is the use of such prosperity without the opportunity of beneficence, which is exercised chiefly and in its most laudable form towards friends? Or how can prosperity be guarded and preserved without friends? The greater it is, the more exposed is it to risk. And in poverty and in other misfortunes men think friends are the only refuge. It helps the young, too, to keep from error; it aids older people by ministering to their needs and supplementing the activities that are failing from weakness; those in the prime of life it stimulates to noble actions … for with friends men are more able both to think and to act.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1155a5
The good person is related to his friend as to himself (for his friend is another self).
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1166a
No one would choose the whole world on condition of being alone, since man is a political creature and one whose nature is to live with others.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1169b18
The activity of philosophic wisdom is admittedly the pleasantest of virtuous activities; at all events the pursuit of it is thought to offer pleasures marvellous for their purity and their enduringness, and it is to be expected that those who know will pass their time more pleasantly than those who inquire.
– Nicomachean Ethics, 1177a24
The distinction between historian and poet is not in the one writing prose and the other verse—you might put the work of Herodotus into verse, and it would still be a species of history; it consists really in this, that the one describes the thing that has been, and the other a kind of thing that might be. Hence poetry is something more philosophic and of graver import than history, since its statements are of the nature rather of universals, whereas those of history are singulars. By a universal statement I mean one as to what such or such a kind of man will probably or necessarily say or do—which is the aim of poetry … by a singular statement, one as to what, say, Alcibiades did or had done to him.
– Poetics, 1541a40
For the purposes of poetry a convincing impossibility is preferable to an unconvincing possibility.
– Poetics, 1461b11
Rhetoric is useful because things that are true and things that are just have a natural tendency to prevail over their opposites, so that if the decisions of judges are not what they ought to be, the defeat must be due to the speakers themselves, and they must be blamed accordingly.
– Rhetoric, 1355a
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